Pragmata Institute was established in the Republic of San Marino in 1995. San Marino is the oldest Republic in the world and is represented in major international organizations. On the world scenario, the country is accredited for its strong commitment in favor of human rights, peace and cooperation.
San Marino is a country that has asserted its statehood and independence thanks to its neutrality, achieving relational levels unique in the world because of its ability not to represent vested interests and remain a non-aligned country.
San Marino can therefore represent a place from where to launch extremely high-potential political messages, from where to promote highly-innovative initiatives and projects, enjoying the support of a sovereign state which has access to all international institutional channels.
The Republic of San Marino has diplomatic and consular relationships with over seventy European and non-European countries.
It is a member state of numerous International Organizations, such as the United Nations Organization (UNO) and many of its Programs, Funds and Agencies, such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank (WB), the International Labor Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). It is also part of the Council of Europe and the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL).
Since 1991, the Republic has also had relations with the European Union; it participates in the Inter- Parliamentary Union, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe and that of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) with its own council delegation.
From May 1990 up to November of the same year and from November 2006 up to May 2007, San Marino has held the six-month presidency of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe.
A SHORT HISTORICAL PROFILE - From a Saint to a State
In the Republic of San Marino, the veneration of the Saint who, according to legend, founded the Republic, is extremely deep-rooted and widespread. The legend tells how this master stone-cutter left his native island of Arbe in Dalmatia and came to Mount Titano to establish a small community of Christians anxious to escape the persecutions of emperor Diocletian. In 301 A.D., the first community was formed out of which the Republic of San Marino originated.
Firsts statutes and laws of San Marino
At a time when the authority of the Empire was waning and the temporal power of the Pope had not yet been established, the local population, like those of several other Italian city states, decided to give themselves some form of government. Hence a free city was born. The small community on Mount Titano, in memory of the legendary figure of Marinus, the stone-cutter, called itself “Land of San Marino”, later “Free city of San Marino” and finally “Republic of San Marino”. Government was entrusted to an assembly of the heads of families called the “Arengo” presided over by a Rector.
As the community grew, a Captain Defender was appointed to share the responsibility of the executive with the Rector.
It was only in 1243 that the first two Consuls, the Captains Regent, were elected to office for a period of six months; a twice-yearly appointment made regularly since then right up to the present, thereby confirming the efficiency of the institutions.
Always anxious to promote peaceful relations and goodwill, the Arengo drew up and promulgated the first laws, the Statutes, inspired by the principles of democracy. Even though in 1253, there was already evidence of the existence of the first Statutes, in 1295 the first set of laws was passed in the Republic of San Marino.
Autonomy of San Marino
Thanks to the wisdom which inspired the ancient free city of San Marino, the community was able to overcome perilous situations and consolidate its independence. The events of history were complicated and their outcomes often uncertain, but the love of freedom enabled the free city to maintain its liberty.
The Republic of San Marino was twice occupied by military forces, but only for a few months at a time: in 1503 by Cesare Borgia, known as Valentino, and in 1739 by Cardinal Giulio Alberoni. Freedom from Borgia came after the tyrant died, while in the case of Cardinal Alberoni, civil disobedience was used to protest against this abuse of power and clandestine messages were sent to obtain justice from the Pope who recognized San Marino’s rights and restored independence.
In 1797, Napoleon offered gifts and friendship to San Marino and also the extension of its territorial boundaries. The people of San Marino were very grateful and honored by such generosity, but refused with instinctive wisdom to enlarge their territory, satisfied as they were with their “status quo”.
In 1849, when Giuseppe Garibaldi was surrounded by three enemy armies after the fall of the Roman Republic, he found unexpected safety for himself and his surviving companions in San Marino.
In the year 1861, Abraham Lincoln showed his friendship and admiration for San Marino when he wrote among other things to the Captains Regent “Although your dominion is small, nevertheless your State is one of the most honored throughout history..”.
San Marino boasts an exceptional tradition of hospitality. This free country has never refused asylum or help to those persecuted by misfortune or tyranny, whatever their condition or ideas. During the last World War, San Marino was neutral, and even though it only had a population of 15.000 inhabitants, it gave shelter and asylum to 100.000 refugees from the surrounding areas of Italy which were being bombed.
The function of Head of State is exercised by two Captains Regent, elected by the legislative body, the Great and General Council (Parliament). They remain in office for just six months, according to a rule that dates back to the end of 1200, created in order to avoid the country’s highest positions being occupied for too long by men with too much power.
The legislative body of San Marino is the Great and General Council (Parliament) made up of 60 members elected every five years by universal suffrage of all citizens of 18 years of age and older; it is the most important assembly in which the political life of the small Republic is defined and in which the main choices for its evolution are made.
The government of the Republic of San Marino is the State Congress, usually made up of ten Secretaries of State (Ministers) chosen and elected within the Great and General Council, that is to say among the members of the political coalition that has won the election. They remain in office for five years.
San Marino also has other important political institutions such as the Council of the XII, which is very ancient and has judiciary functions and others connected to administrative justice. Moreover, the Republic has its own judiciary system, designed to enforce the laws as well as a structured bureaucratic, administrative and fiscal system thanks to which the whole Sate is administrated.